What the Apostle Paul Says About Speaking in Tongues in 1 Corinthians 14
This week I read 1 Corinthians 14, and it made me think a lot about the history of American Sign Language. In 1 Corinthians 14, Paul is talking to the church of Corinth about speaking in tongues. He acknowledges the ability to speak in tongues as being a spiritual gift from God, however, he strongly urges the church of Corinth not to practice the speaking of tongues unless everyone can do it. Paul explains this by stating, “He that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men, but unto God: for no man understandeth him; howbeit in the spirit he speaketh mysteries.” Men who possess the spiritual gift of speaking in tongues can use it to speak to God, yes, but they shouldn’t use it to speak with the rest of the congregation because they won’t understand them. When we enter the church, it should be to honor and glorify God and help our brothers and sisters in Christ to do the same and better come to know God and his words. If we can’t even understand what the members of the body of Christ are saying, then how can we really come to know God and learn at church, let alone properly worship him in his home?
Paul went so far as to suggest that speaking in tongues could be equivalent to making noise without understanding what that noise means in verses 7-11. Here he states:
And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? For ye shall speak into the air. There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification. Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.
How Deaf People Can Relate to 1 Corinthians 14:7-8
Wow, a lot of things going on in these verses! Let’s look at the first part of this first, verses 7-8:
“And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle?”
A deaf person may never hear the sounds of a pipe, harp, or trumpet. You could blow that trumpet as hard as humanly possible, and that deaf person may never prepare himself to battle if that’s all he has to go on because he’ll never know. To him, the sound of a trumpet is completely meaningless.
For me, before getting my cochlear implants, I missed out on many sounds. I’ve discovered many of them since getting my cochlear implants, but I am also still learning more and more sounds every day. It’s not uncommon for me to jump a little in class as a train goes by or someone talks or fidgets, or I hear an unknown sound. I’m constantly trying to define the source of the sound and what it means. This is what the congregation must’ve been like back in Paul’s time when they tried to understand what the speaker said when he spoke in tongues that they did not understand.
I also relate this to ASL. The Deaf community needs ASL so that they can understand what is being said in the church. To them, verbal communication means nothing. They have no idea what the pastor is preaching without the use of ASL. They will never hear the gospel or understand the message that day. The pastor might as well be speaking in tongues because they’d never know otherwise. Here, Thomas Gallaudet’s arguments for using sign language in the church make sense.
Can Sign Language Really Bring You Closer to God?
Thomas Gallaudet and the manualists didn’t just think that sign language in the church would help the deaf to better understand sermons; they took it a step further. Along with the other manualists, Gallaudet felt that sign language would bring the deaf closer to God. In Tracy Morse’s dissertation, “Saving Grace: Religious Rhetoric in the Deaf Community,” she quotes Douglas Baynton’s Forbidden Signs when she says:
For manualists, this view was interpreted in Protestant terms: sign language was an original language and meant “closer to the Creation,” not inferiority. However, for oralists, sign language was associated with lower evolution or “inferior races.” Oralists made arguments that deaf students needed to learn spoken English and lip reading or be viewed as animals or savages.
Now, let’s look back to the scripture and focus on verse 11, which states, “Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.
The word “barbarian” here is what stands out the most to me. Do you know who else really loves the word “barbarian”? Alexander Graham Bell. He was NOT a manualist like Thomas Gallaudet, but rather an oralist who believed that the deaf needed to move away from sign language and instead learn to speak verbally and read lips and live in the hearing world.
So, what am I saying here? Do I think that this verse is saying sign language is barbaric? Absolutely not, but at the same time, it could be absolutely so. So it’s a yes and a no for me.
Here is what I think that verse is saying, or what the core message Paul has for the church of Corinth is:
We need to speak in a way that people can understand what we are saying in church so as to not cause confusion or anything that can inhibit man’s understanding of the gospel and man’s ability to honor and glorify the Lord.
Back in the time of the church of Corinth, speaking in tongues was a barrier for people in the church because it might have benefited the person speaking it, but it did not benefit the church. Paul is calling for the unity of the church; everyone needs to unite as the body as Christ and work in a way that best serves God and not themselves, and that involves speaking a universal language they can all understand.
How Churches Can Support Deaf and Hard of Hearing Attendees
What does this mean for the deaf in the church? Should they be forced to lip-read and practice the oral method? No. I think the deaf should have a right to hear the sermon in a way that is the most accessible to them. Many churches offer the hearing loop to help hard of hearing and deaf people to hear (depending on the degree of hearing loss, of course). If a deaf person needs an interpreter, they should have access to it.
If most church attendees are Deaf and rely on sign language, then perhaps that church should consider doing full sermons primarily in ASL, which will benefit that church and help the attendees learn and honor and glorify God the best.
Do People Still Speak in Tongues Today?
We don’t have to worry too much about the speaking of tongues in modern-day society. 1 Corinthians 13:8 says, “Whether there be tongues they shall cease.” People cannot speak in tongues today (I acknowledge that many claim they do, and I have my own feelings on that, but I’ll be nice and go the route of “no comment” on that…). Whereas Corinth’s church had to worry about speaking in tongues, today, our issue is more or less about what language or style/tone to use in church. I think it all depends on the congregation and choosing the most accessible to your churchgoers.
Why the Church Needs Both Signed and Spoken Languages
In Baynton’s Forbidden Signs, he explains how many oralists feared that by relying too heavily on sign language, the deaf community would isolate themselves from the rest of the world. He stated:
Like their contemporaries in other fields of reform, oralists worried that people’s lives were diminished by being a part of such communities as the deaf community; they would not, it was feared, fully share in the life of the nation. The deaf community, like ethnic communities, narrowed the minds and outlooks of its members. “The individual must be one with race,” one wrote in words reminiscent of many other Progressive reformers, “or he is virtually annihilated”; the chief curse of deafness was “apartness from the life of the world,” and it was just this that oralism was designed to remedy. Apartness was the darkness manualists redefined for a new world.
Sign language was (and still is) very different from spoken English or any spoken language, really It’s different from what the majority are speaking, and when people can’t speak our language, either they or we miss out. Isn’t this the same as what was going on in the church of Corinth in a way? Paul wanted to see the church of Corinth come together to honor, serve, and glorify the Lord and to unite as the body of Christ. Speaking in tongues was something very few church members could do that caused a separation or divide between those who could speak and understand it and those who could not. It became a distraction that kept people from coming to know God.
Is sign language a distraction that keeps the deaf from doing things in their daily lives? It is obvious that it causes a divide between the hearing and the deaf worlds. It can make things better for the deaf in the church, and I can see how it can strengthen their relationships with God, but if we only signed and didn’t speak spoken English, the rest of the congregation would suffer. I don’t see sign language as a form of language that brings a person closer to God because it’s a superior or holier language than standard English. I think it’s just another language that, for some, is their primary and therefore the best, and for others, it is just another language in the world that exists but one they don’t partake in or use in their daily lives.